About kopal

Project Timetable
Work Packages

Technical Aspects

Object Specification
koLibRI -
kopal Library for Retrieval and Ingest
sponsored by Federal Ministry of Education and Research

deutsch  |  Home  |  Masthead  |  Privacy Policy

Glossary / List of Links


For general information about long-term archiving, please visit the home page of the nestor project: Projekt nestor - Kompetenznetzwerk Langzeitarchivierung:


B  |  C  |  D  |  E  |  L  |  M  |  N  |  O  |  P  |  U  |  W  |  X


Bundesministerium f�r Bildung und Forschung (Federal Ministry of Education and Research, Germany)


back to top..  nach oben


Content Analysis Standards Development Heterogeneity MEtadata REtrieval: a BMBF-sponsored project of the Universität Osnabrück (University of Osnabrueck), Niedersächsische Staats- und Universitätsbibliothek Göttingen (Goettingen State and University Library), and IWI e.V. (Institut für wissenschaftliche Information) of Osnabrueck for promoting development and dissemination within the area of the Semantic Web.


back to top..  nach oben


Dublin Core is a standard for the description of data, i.e., a standard for metadata.


back to top..  nach oben


The Dublin Core Metadata Initiative.


back to top..  nach oben


Digital Information Archiving System. DIAS provides a flexible and scalable open deposit library solution for storing and retrieving massive amounts of electronic documents and multimedia files.


back to top..  nach oben


Emulation is used to attempt to avoid the losses that occur in a data-format migration by emulating the hardware as a software program which can load the archived operating system and the software components that are built on it. However, using this solution, one has the problem that the emulation software has to be individually customized to each new hardware architecture. If this is not done for some reason, the entire body of data is lost. That is, with the use of emulation, the data themselves remain unmodified; rather, one tries to program the original computer environment in order to make the data available.

In the meantime, an elaborated approach to emulation has emerged: the Universal Virtual Computer (UVC). The UVC does without emulating the original hardware and software. It is a well-documented virtual computer on which various architectures can be emulated. It is designed like a current computer, for instance, making access to storage possible. Building on this virtual computer, programs can be written which, for example, can read a PDF file. The PDF reader for the UVC as well as the PDF document itself are archived. A user in the future will be able to use not-yet-developed sophisticated software and with the help of the UVC documentation, implement the UVC and start the PDF reader on that platform in order to display the archived PDF document.

 nestor -- Glossar: Emulation

back to top..  nach oben


Long-term Preservation Metadata for Electronic Resources


back to top..  nach oben


Metadata Encoding & Transmission Standard. The METS schema is a standard for encoding descriptive, administrative, and structural metadata for objects in a digital library.


back to top..  nach oben


Metadata Object Description Schema. MODS is a schema for a bibliographic element set that may be used for a variety of purposes, particularly library applications.


back to top..  nach oben


The term "migration" as used within the long-term archiving community refers to both the migration of media and the migration of the data itself.

In the case of migration of media, the data are periodically copied from one medium to another, for example, from a hard disk to a CD-ROM, or from a DVD to tape, etc. This type of migration, also called bitstream preservation, is the basis for the physical preservation of the data.

In the case of data migration, also known as format migration, the data are transferred from one format to another format, preferably one that is a standardized and open format. Thus, there is no concern about the environment of the data in data migration, nor about the hardware or software that were originally used in generating or accessing the data. With data migration, there is the problem of attendant loss of information. For example, it is often the case in data migration that the external appearance of the data is changed, or, more seriously, that some of the data are simply lost.

 nestor -- Glossar: Migration

back to top..  nach oben


Network of Expertise in Long-Term Storage and Long-Term Availability of Digital Resources in Germany


back to top..  nach oben


Open Archives Initiative.


back to top..  nach oben


Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting. OAI-PMH provides an application-independent interoperability framework for the exchange of structured metadata.

 Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting

back to top..  nach oben


Open Archival Information System.


 Reference Model for an Open Archival Information System (PDF file 1.1 MB)

back to top..  nach oben


PREservation Metadata: Implementation Strategies.


back to top..  nach oben


A URI (Uniform Resource Identifier) is a naming scheme which provides all Internet resources with a unique name. By definition, a URI is either a URL (Uniform Resource Locator) or a URN (Uniform Resource Name).


back to top..  nach oben


URL (Uniform Resource Locator) is an accepted standard for the specification of the location of and access to an Internet resource.


back to top..  nach oben


A URN (Uniform Resource Name) is assigned to an object, independent of the server on which the object resides. A URN is not intended to be interpretable by humans. Rather, the resolution of a URN and the determination of the corresponding URL requires a Universal Name Service (UNS).


back to top..  nach oben


The World Wide Web Consortium is the organization that establishes recommendations (standards) for the Internet.


back to top..  nach oben


eXtensible Markup Language. XML describes data. It is expandable and thus can describe data of any kind. An XML author can create his/her own tags in order to accomplish this.


back to top..  nach oben


nestor Newsletter

Project Partners

German National

Goettingen SUB
IBM (Link)
Valid CSS!   Valid XHTML 1.0!